Big Data is emerging as an opportunity for organizations. Now, organizations have realized that they are getting lots of benefits by Big Data Analytics, as you can see in the below image. They are examining large data sets to uncover all hidden patterns, unknown correlations, market trends, customer preferences and other useful business information.

These analytical findings are helping organizations in more effective marketing, new revenue opportunities, better customer service. They are improving operational efficiency, competitive advantages over rival organizations and other business benefits.

In traditional approach, the main issue was handling the heterogeneity of data i.e. structured, semi-structured and unstructured. The RDBMS focuses mostly on structured data like banking transaction, operational data etc. and Hadoop specializes in semi-structured, unstructured data like text, videos, audios, Facebook posts, logs, etc. RDBMS technology is a proven, highly consistent, matured systems supported by many companies. While on the other hand, Hadoop is in demand due to Big Data, which mostly consists of unstructured data in different formats.

Now let'us understand what are the major problems associated with Big Data. So that, moving ahead we can understand how Hadoop emerged as a solution. adoop is a framework that allows you to first store Big Data in a distributed environment, so that, you can process it parallely. There are basically two components in Hadoop

Let’s understand the how Hadoop provided the solution to the Big Data problems that we just discussed. HDFS provides a distributed way to store Big data. Your data is stored in blocks across the DataNodes and you can specify the size of blocks. Basically, if you have 512MB of data and you have configured HDFS such that, it will create 128 MB of data blocks. So HDFS will divide data into 4 blocks as 512/128=4 and store it across different DataNodes, it will also replicate the data blocks on different DataNodes. Now, as we are using commodity hardware, hence storing is not a challenge.

It also solves the scaling problem. It focuses on horizontal scaling instead of vertical scaling. You can always add some extra data nodes to HDFS cluster as and when required, instead of scaling up the resources of your DataNodes. Let me summarize it for you basically for storing 1 TB of data, you don't need a 1TB system. You can instead do it on multiple 128GB systems or even less.

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